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10th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference
"Rainwater International 2001"
Mannheim, Germany - September 2001

Section 4: Rainwater Catchment in Agriculture

Paper 4.28

Peculiarities of Runoff Generation in Deserts (The Kyzylkum Desert as an example)

Sobirjon Azimbaev, Obidjon Azimbaev, Nilufar Turdieva
Institute Of Water Problems
Uzbek Academy of Sciences
Tashkent, Uzbekistan


The source of nutrition for temporary water drains in Central Kyzylkum is rain and sometimes thawed snow. Observation of the formation of drains (G. T. Leshinsky, 1963) shows that water gates, formed by takir and takir sort soils, precipitation in quantity of up to 3-5 mm for the period of one rain does not usually cause drains. They are completely spent on infiltration and for surface detention in microfall comprising so-called initial losses of drain. At very damp soil or at downpours initial losses are several times less. So, precipitation in 5 mm with intensity 0,10 mm/mm already form a drain.

In water gates formed by loamy-sandy soil earth, initial losses of drain in dry water gates reaches 20-26 mm and sometimes even more. It means that the intensity of precipitation, particularly in the autumn and spring, usually does not exceed intensity of infiltration of these soils. In very moist soil or in downpour the initial losses are less. Research of G.T. Leshinsky shows, that the precipitation in 5 mm with intensity 0.10 mm/min already forms drain.

According to the data of Gidrometcenter maximum relative number of cases of drain-forming rain (8.5-14.3%) is observed under precipitation of 5-10 mm, under precipitation exceeding 20 mm, it is insignificant at less 2 %. A number of drain-forming rains with precipitation more than 5 mm - from 3 to 8.

Calculations are based on the method of N. M. Alushinskaya (1959) for possible collection of atmospheric precipitation under their various intensity in the area situated between mountains Kuljuctau and Auminzatau.

It is clear that the volume of surface drain for one rain (sum of precipitation - 10 mm, average intensity of rain - 0.5 mm/min) for the water gates with an area of 2700 m2 equals 518 m3 of water from the same area under the intensity of rain 0.1 mm/min and 1296 m3 of water can be collected. Similar calculations are done for the areas with various lithological structure under the various sums of precipitation per rain and its intensity and different areas occupied by water gates, in different geomorphological conditions of Central Kyzylkum.

The use of a small part of potential water resources permits to improve drinking and pasture water supplies in various desert regions.

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