International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association
International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conferences
  Next conference
  1st, Hawaii
  2nd, St Thomas
  3rd, Khon Kaen
  4th, Manila
  5th, Taiwan
  6th, Nairobi
  7th, Beijing
  8th, Tehran
  9th, Petrolina
  10th, Mannheim
  11th, Texcoco
  12th, New Delhi
  13th, Sydney
  14th, Kuala Lumpur
  Join IRCSA
  IRCSA Board

10th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference
"Rainwater International 2001"
Mannheim, Germany - September 2001

Section 5: Legal and Political Aspects of Rainwater Harvesting

Paper 5.19

Ecological Sanitation - Dehydration Toilets

Hans Schattauer
Dept. for Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control (SIG)
Institute for Water Provision, Water Ecology &Waste Management (IWGA)
University of Agricultural Sciences


The two most commonly used sanitation technologies today are pit toilets (drop and store indefinitely)and flush toilets (flush and forget).A flush toilet is basically a machine for mixing human urine, faeces and water. The mixture is than removed from private responsibility by sewers making communities responsible for proper disposal. Conventional waterborne sewage systems have proven to be inappropriate to solve sanitation needs in developing countries. It is too costly and approx.90%of the sewage is discharged untreated, contaminating ground waters, rivers, lakes and coastal areas.

At the same time soil-fertility is decreasing and nutrients from human urine, rich in nitrogen and phosphates would be needed in agriculture.

There is an enormous challenge to rethink and to raise the status of sanitation and a need for new approaches, techniques and methods.

Ecological sanitation as a closed cycle of nutrients in the eco-system could help to overcome these problems, taking care of the environment by protecting resources underground, upstream and downstream of the settlements.

PDF of full document (4pp, 142kb)

Note: The IRCSA proceedings section is still new and under active management, If you find any problems, ommissions or corrections please contact the administrator so we can put things right.
Top of Page