International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference
Mannheim, Germany - September 2001
Legal and Political Aspects of Rainwater Harvesting
Ecological Sanitation - Dehydration Toilets
Dept. for Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control (SIG)
Institute for Water Provision, Water Ecology &Waste Management (IWGA)
University of Agricultural Sciences
The two most commonly used sanitation technologies today are pit toilets
(drop and store indefinitely)and flush toilets (flush and forget).A flush
toilet is basically a machine for mixing human urine, faeces and water.
The mixture is than removed from private responsibility by sewers making
communities responsible for proper disposal. Conventional waterborne sewage
systems have proven to be inappropriate to solve sanitation needs in developing
countries. It is too costly and approx.90%of the sewage is discharged
untreated, contaminating ground waters, rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
At the same time soil-fertility is decreasing and nutrients from human
urine, rich in nitrogen and phosphates would be needed in agriculture.
There is an enormous challenge to rethink and to raise the status of
sanitation and a need for new approaches, techniques and methods.
Ecological sanitation as a closed cycle of nutrients in the eco-system
could help to overcome these problems, taking care of the environment
by protecting resources underground, upstream and downstream of the settlements.
PDF of full document (4pp, 142kb)
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