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5th International Conference on Rain Water Cistern Systems
"Rainwater Catchment for Future Generations"
Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C. - August 1991

Section 10: Country Reports and Future Outlooks

Page 651

Hafirs In Sudan

Ahmed Ayoub El Gaddal
Ministry of Health, Sudan


The HAFIR is an underground :reservoir designed for storing rain water carried by streams and used for domestic water supply and for agricultural purposes in rural areas in the Sudan.

Hafirs are usually constructed where there is enough rainfall and where there is no underground water.It is usually big enough to cater for the needs of the villagers and their live-stock for a whole season. The Hafir is surrounded by earthen embankments and protected by barbed wire fencing from animals. The shape of the Hafir is like a trunkated frustum of a pyramid. The average capacity of a Hafir varies from 15,000 to 250,000 m3. There are different types of Hafirs e.g.:

  1. Conventional HAFIRS 
  2. Lined HAFIRS 
  3. Overground storage HAFIRS

Maintenance of HAFIRS depends on:

  1. Removal of slit 
  2. Cleaning of water pipes 
  3. Cleaning of canals-stilling bowels, inlets and outlets.  
  4. Compaction of eroded embankment.

PDF of full document (10pp, 270kb)

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